The widespread use of painkillers has become a common practice in South Africa. These medications are readily available, generally well-tolerated, and, when used correctly, can provide effective relief. However, for some individuals who rely on them over the long term, the relief can turn into a habit that’s incredibly difficult to break.
Opioids, including medications like hydrocodone (Vicodin), oxycodone (OxyContin), oxymorphone, morphine (MS-Contin), codeine, and fentanyl, are among the most frequently prescribed painkillers. Unfortunately, they are also some of the most addictive substances.
While the United States has grappled with the well-documented opioid crisis, South Africa faces similar concerns of an emerging epidemic. Recent reports from South African health authorities indicate that a significant portion of the population relies on one or more opioid pain medications. Alarmingly, it’s estimated that one-third of regular painkiller users misuse these medications, with approximately 10% developing an addiction.
If you suspect that someone you know in South Africa is grappling with a painkiller addiction, it’s crucial to recognize the signs and encourage them to seek help.
How to Spot a Painkiller Addiction
- Increased Drug-Seeking Behavior
One of the initial signs of a painkiller addiction is heightened drug-seeking behavior. If you notice that someone is frequently exceeding the prescribed dosage or taking medication preventively, even without experiencing pain, it may indicate a problem. Borrowing pain medication from others or pretending to run out of medication to obtain more are red flags. Additionally, “doctor shopping” – visiting multiple physicians to obtain prescriptions – is a concerning behavior. The increasing availability of opioids for purchase online poses a significant danger, as these medications may be mixed with harmful substances or supplied in highly potent forms.Earlier this year, the South African Home Office announced plans to ban 11 synthetic opioids in an effort to curb the availability of these highly addictive substances, which can be even more potent than fentanyl, a drug associated with numerous fatalities.
- Changes in Personality and Emotions
Behavioral changes are often the most apparent indicators of a painkiller addiction. Individuals may exhibit erratic mood swings, driven by the impact of opioids on the brain’s pleasure center. Prolonged use of painkillers can alter essential neurotransmitters, resulting in irritability, anxiety, or depression when the drugs wear off. Additional psychological signs of addiction may include poor decision-making, difficulty concentrating, memory problems, withdrawal from social interactions, increased nervousness or paranoia, restlessness, deceitful behavior to conceal their drug use, and even lying.It’s crucial to be vigilant for signs of addiction in young people, as they may have access to painkillers. Adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15 and 25 are at a higher risk of prescription drug abuse, especially those already dealing with anxiety, which can predispose them to addiction.
- Displaying Physical Symptoms
Alongside the mental toll of long-term opioid use, physical symptoms may become noticeable in individuals with painkiller addiction. Changes in appearance, such as neglecting personal hygiene and appearance, can be the first signs. Several distinct physical indicators of painkiller addiction include pinpoint pupils, droopy or drowsy eyes, slurred speech, slowed reaction times, an unsteady gait or coordination difficulties, nausea, vomiting, reduced appetite, itching, skin problems, susceptibility to frequent illnesses due to a compromised immune system, and symptoms of withdrawal when they attempt to stop using the painkillers.Withdrawal symptoms may manifest as feverishness, muscle cramps, trembling, confusion, and other signs, indicating the individual’s reliance on painkillers to function.
- Changes in Work, Home, or Social Life
The areas most profoundly affected by painkiller addiction often include an individual’s home, work, and social life. Partners may notice neglect of household duties, financial responsibilities, or parenting responsibilities. Colleagues may observe a previously reliable worker taking more time off or performing below their usual standard.Common signs of addiction include conflicts with friends, family, and colleagues; excessive spending on painkillers leading to debt; legal troubles; accidents or altercations at home or work; neglect of children or creating an unsafe living environment; uncontrolled anger or emotional outbursts; and strained or broken relationships. Notably, a period of unemployment can contribute to the development of painkiller addiction, as individuals may have more free time and fewer constraints.
- Continued Use Despite Negative Consequences
A defining feature of addiction is the persistence of destructive behavior despite negative consequences. Those grappling with painkiller addiction often go to great lengths to continue their drug use, even as their lives unravel. Denial is a common defense mechanism, as prescription drugs are often viewed as harmless due to their widespread use. Loved ones may become defensive or make excuses to justify their continued use of painkillers. If you’re concerned about someone, provide them with the support they need to seek help.
How Can Changes Assist with Painkiller Addiction in South Africa?
Changes Rehab offers comprehensive support for individuals struggling with painkiller addiction. Our purpose-built rehab center provides a calm and secure environment for individuals to begin their journey to recovery. For concerned friends and family members, we can facilitate interventions to ensure their loved ones receive the necessary help.
Painkiller addiction in South Africa is becoming a significant public health issue, with a growing number of individuals becoming dependent on both prescription and over-the-counter medications. Although specific statistics on painkiller abuse are limited, national surveys indicate that prescription drugs are among the most abused substances, with studies in regions like Gauteng showing over 1% of adolescents misusing prescription painkillers. Contributing factors include easy access to painkillers, lower perceived risks compared to illegal narcotics, inconsistent regulation of controlled substances, and social stressors that lead to self-medication. Healthcare professionals are focusing on better prescribing practices and increasing awareness about the dangers of painkiller misuse.
The impact of painkiller addiction in South Africa is profound, affecting physical health, psychological well-being, and socioeconomic stability. Physically, long-term misuse can lead to liver damage, kidney failure, cardiovascular risks, and respiratory depression. Psychologically, addiction can worsen mental health conditions and lead to dependence syndrome. Socioeconomically, it causes employment disruption, financial strain, strained family dynamics, and in some cases, criminal activity. To address this, South Africa offers various treatment and rehabilitation services, including inpatient and outpatient programs and support groups like Narcotics Anonymous. National policies and initiatives by the government and organizations like the Central Drug Authority and the National Drug Master Plan focus on reducing substance availability and improving treatment outcomes. Additionally, education programs aim to prevent addiction by informing the public and training healthcare professionals in responsible prescribing practices.
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Our multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals offers a range of services, including clinical detoxification and one-on-one psychotherapy, as well as various somatic healing therapies. We believe that every addiction has an underlying cause, and we help individuals identify those causes, develop coping strategies, and learn to live fulfilling lives free from the reliance on painkillers. Each guest receives a personalized plan and 12 months of aftercare support to break the cycle of addiction and build a brighter future beyond it.